APA work cited page is not required for this assignment. Topic will be somethin

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Nov 23, 2022

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APA work cited page is not required for this assignment. Topic will be something found in the textbook for the course you find most useful and beneficial. Oral citations are not required unless you find references outside the textbook source. The extemporaneous speech outline must provide enough information for a 5-7 minute speech. Follow the example outline using MPx3+TS. (A two and one/half page speech outline is usually a 5-7 minute speech.). An EXTEMPORANEOUS speech is a speech delivery method that is well prepared and not read or memorized. This is a speech delivery that focuses the main points very clearly. Introduce them, explain them, review them. Main Points 3 times plus transition statements. When you know your main points this becomes more specific and causes less anxiety. Transition statements are simply stating what you are about to talk about…. This final extemoraneous speech serves as the final exam for the course. The outline has to be EXACTLY like the sample I’m going to include in this attachment.
Chapter 17 Outline (this is the chapter I choose at my favorite to do the speech outline on)
I. There is a perpetual interest in the methods of persuasion.
A. People have been studying the strategies and tactics of successful persuasion for
thousands of years.
B. Scholars generally agree that listeners are persuaded by a speaker for one or more
of four reasons.
1. Because they perceive the speaker as having high credibility.
2. Because they are won over by the speaker’s evidence.
3. Because they are convinced by the speaker’s reasoning.
4. Because their emotions are touched by the speaker’s ideas or language.
II. A speaker’s credibility plays an important role in persuading the audience.
A. Credibility is the audience’s attitude toward or perception of the speaker.
B. A speaker’s credibility is affected by two primary factors—competence and
character.
1. Competence refers to how an audience regards a speaker’s intelligence,
expertise, and knowledge of the subject.
2. Character refers to how an audience regards a speaker’s sincerity,
trustworthiness, and concern for the well-being of the audience.
C. There are three types of credibility.
1. Initial credibility is the audience’s perception of the speaker before the
speech begins.
2. Derived credibility is produced by everything a speaker says and does
during the speech.
3. Terminal credibility is the audience’s perception of the speaker at the end of
the speech.
D. There are three strategies speakers can use to enhance their credibility.
1. Speakers can enhance their credibility by explaining their competence.
2. Speakers can enhance their credibility by establishing common ground with
the audience.
3. Speakers can enhance their credibility by delivering their speeches fluently,
expressively, and with conviction.
III. A speaker’s use of evidence plays an important role in persuading the audience.
A. Evidence consists of examples, statistics, and testimony used to prove or disprove
something.
B. To be persuasive, speakers must support their views with evidence.
1. Careful listeners are skeptical of unsupported claims and generalizations.
2. Strong evidence is particularly important when the speaker is not
recognized as an expert on the speech topic.
3. Strong evidence is also crucial when the target audience opposes the
speaker’s point of view.
C. There are four tips persuasive speakers should follow to use evidence effectively.
1. Persuasive speakers should use specific evidence.
2. Persuasive speakers should use novel evidence.
3. Persuasive speakers should use evidence from credible sources.
4. Persuasive speakers should make clear the point of their evidence.
IV. A speaker’s reasoning plays an important role in persuading the audience.
A. Reasoning is the process of drawing a conclusion based on evidence.
B. Public speakers have two major concerns with respect to reasoning.
1. The first is to make sure the speaker’s reasoning is sound.
2. The second is to get listeners to agree with the speaker’s reasoning.
C. Persuasive speakers often use reasoning from specific instances.
1. When speakers reason from specific instances, they progress from a number
of particular facts to a general conclusion.
2. Speakers should follow three guidelines when reasoning from specific
instances.
1. They need to beware of jumping to conclusions on the basis of
insufficient evidence.
2. They need to be careful with their wording so as not to overstate the
facts.
3. They need to reinforce their argument with statistics or testimony.
D. Persuasive speakers often use reasoning from principle.
1. When speakers reason from principle, they move from a general principle to
a specific conclusion.
2. Speakers should follow two basic guidelines when reasoning from principle.
1. They need to make certain the audience will accept the general
principle.
2. They also need to make sure the audience will accept the minor
premise.
E. Persuasive speakers often use causal reasoning.
1. Causal reasoning tries to establish the relationship between causes and
effects.
2. Speakers should follow two guidelines when using causal reasoning.
a. They should avoid the fallacy of false cause.
b. Speakers should also avoid the fallacy of assuming that events have
only one cause.
F. Persuasive speakers often use analogical reasoning.
1. Analogical reasoning compares two similar cases to draw the conclusion
that what is true in one case will also be true in the other.
2. The most important guideline for speakers using analogical reasoning is to
make sure the two cases being compared are essentially alike.
a. If the cases being compared are essentially alike, the analogy is valid.
b. If the cases being compared are not essentially alike, the analogy is
invalid.
G. Regardless of the method of reasoning they use, speakers must guard against logical
fallacies in their presentations.
1. A fallacy is an error in reasoning.
2. There are ten fallacies that seem most common in student speeches.
a. Hasty generalization occurs when a speaker jumps to a conclusion
on the basis of too few cases, or on the basis of atypical cases.
b. False cause occurs when a speaker assumes that because one event
follows another, the first event is the cause of the second.
c. An invalid analogy occurs when two cases being compared are not
essentially alike.
d. The bandwagon fallacy assumes that because something is popular,
it is therefore good, correct, or desirable.
e. The red herring fallacy introduces an irrelevant issue in order to
divert attention from the subject under discussion.
f. The ad hominem fallacy substitutes an attack on the person for
discussion of the real issue in dispute.
g. The either-or fallacy, sometimes referred to as a false dilemma,
forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than
two alternatives exist.
h. The slippery slope fallacy assumes that taking a first step will lead
inevitably to a second step and so on down the slope to disaster.
i. The appeal to tradition fallacy occurs when a speaker assumes that
something old is automatically better than something new.
j. The appeal to novelty fallacy occurs when a speaker assumes that
because something is new, it is therefore superior to something that
is older.
V. A speaker’s emotional appeals play an important role in persuading the audience.
A. Emotional appeals—often called motivational appeals—are intended to make listeners feel
sad, angry, guilty, fearful, reverent, or the like.
B. Speakers can generate emotional appeal in three ways.
1. One way to generate emotional appeal is with emotionally charged language.
2. A second way to generate emotional appeal is with vivid examples.
3. A third way to generate emotional appeal is to speak with sincerity and conviction.
C. Because emotional appeals have so much potential power, they need to be used with a
strong sense of ethical responsibility.
1. Emotional appeals can be abused by unscrupulous speakers for detestable causes.
2. Emotional appeals can also be used by principled speakers for noble causes.
3. Ethical speakers should make sure their emotional appeals are appropriate to the
speech topic.
4. Even when trying to move listeners to action, a speaker should never substitute
emotional appeals for evidence and reasoning.
5. When using emotional appeals, persuasive speakers should also keep in mind the
guidelines for ethical speechmaking discussed in Chapter 2.

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